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Is breast cancer a multifactorial trait?

Is breast cancer a multifactorial trait?

Breast cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease where there is a strong interplay between genetic and environmental factors. At present, approximately 180 000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States (1).

Is cancer a multifactorial trait?

Cancer may therefore be considered a multifactorial disease, resulting from the combined influence of many genetic factors acting in concert with environmental insults (e.g., ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoke, and viruses).

What genetic factors contribute to breast cancer?

BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Is cancer a polygenic trait?

During the past years evidence has been accumulated that breast cancer is a polygenic trait and also that several more susceptibility genes exist [18–21].

Does your breast hurt with cancer?

Breast cancer can cause changes in skin cells that lead to feelings of pain, tenderness, and discomfort in the breast. Although breast cancer is often painless, it is important not to ignore any signs or symptoms that could be due to breast cancer. Some people may describe the pain as a burning sensation.

What are examples of multifactorial traits?

Types of multifactorial traits and disorders

  • Birth defects such as neural tube defects and cleft palate.
  • Cancers of the breast, ovaries, bowel, prostate, and skin.
  • High blood pressure and high cholesterol.
  • Diabetes.
  • Alzheimer disease.
  • Schizophrenia.
  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Arthritis.

What are multifactorial traits?

A polygenic trait is one whose phenotype is influenced by more than one gene. Traits that display a continuous distribution, such as height or skin color, are polygenic.

Is breast cancer hereditary from paternal grandmother?

You are substantially more likely to have a genetic mutation linked to breast cancer if: You have blood relatives (grandmothers, mother, sisters, aunts) on either your mother’s or father’s side of the family who had breast cancer diagnosed before age 50.

Are polygenic risk scores useful?

Polygenic risk scores show promise in aiding clinical decision-making in many areas of medical practice. The genome-wide genotype data needed to calculate PRS are inexpensive to generate and could become available to psychiatrists as a by-product of practices in other medical specialties.

Who is the longest breast cancer survivor?

Thelma Sutcliffe turned 114 years old in October. She now holds the record as the oldest living American, as the previous record holder died recently at age 116. Sutcliffe has survived breast cancer twice during her lifetime.

How are nongenetic factors related to breast cancer?

Although nongenetic factors also clearly play a role in the familial clustering of breast cancer, 5%–10% of all breast cancers can be explained by the inheritance of mutations in one of the two major breast cancer susceptibility genes (2).

Who is at risk for a multifactorial trait?

Your risk for a multifactorial trait or condition depends on how close you are to a family member with the trait or condition. For example, you’re at higher risk for a trait or disorder if your brother or sister has it. You’re at lower risk if a cousin has it.

What kind of mutations are associated with breast cancer?

DNA changes that negatively affect health are called mutations. Most inherited cases of breast cancer are associated with mutations in two genes: BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene one) and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene two). Everyone has BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.

Which is an example of a multifactorial disorder?

Types of multifactorial traits and disorders. Health problems that are caused by both genes and other factors include: Birth defects such as neural tube defects and cleft palate. Cancers of the breast, ovaries, bowel, prostate, and skin. High blood pressure and high cholesterol. Diabetes. Alzheimer disease.