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What is treatment failure in tuberculosis?

What is treatment failure in tuberculosis?

Treatment failure of TB, which is defined as a patient who is sputum smear or sputum culture positive at 5 months or later after the initiation of anti TB treatment, 3 is one of the threats to the control of TB.

Why does TB treatment fail?

Published medical risk factors for failure or relapse include HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, low body weight, cavitation on chest x-ray, high bacterial burden, short treatment duration, drug resistance, and positive culture after two months of treatment[14-16].

What is the most common cause of treatment failure in tuberculosis?

Some of the factors associated with treatment failure include poor drug compliance, primary drug-resistant TB, lack of efficacious anti-TB drugs, and presence of comorbidities such as HIV infection and diabetes mellitus.

What is antiretroviral therapeutic failure phase?

Treatment failure is defined as repeated HIV RNA values above the lower limit of detection of a sensitive assay (usually 50 copies per mL). This is based on evidence that the maximum clinical benefit of antiretroviral therapy is derived by keeping the viral load as low as possible.

Can I get married after TB treatment?

Finally, treatment of TB requires a 6-month or more course of drug therapy and participants generally considered it preferable to delay marriage until the course has been completed.

What is treatment after failure?

Retreatment can be undertaken after considering several different strategies: to repeat the same regimen with full doses of medications and a longer treatment duration, or to choose different regimens to avoid the antibiotic previously used, or to switch to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based quadruple therapy or …

What happens if the antiretroviral drugs are unsuccessful?

Virologic Failure When antiretroviral therapy is working, the viral load should be fully undetectable, meaning that it is below the level of detection (under 20 to 75 copies/mL, depending on the test). 1 If failure is allowed to continue, the viral load will continue to rise, in some cases into the millions.

What is the difference between virological failure and immunological failure?

Virological failure was associated with non-adherence to medications, aged < 40 years old, having CD4+ T-cells count < 250 cells/μL and male gender. Similarly, immunological failure was associated with non-adherence, tuberculosis co-infection and Human immunodeficiency virus RNA ≥1000 copies/mL.