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What is pre XDR-TB?

What is pre XDR-TB?

Pre-extensively drug resistant TB (Pre-XDR TB) is defined as MDR-TB strain that is resistant to either fluoroquinolones (FQ) or second line injectable drug but not both. XDR-TB is defined as MDR-TB strain that is resistant to any FQs and one of the second line injectable drugs (capreomycin, kanamycin or amikacin) [1].

Where are cases of XDR-TB most prevalent?

According to WHO, about 9.7% of people with MDR-TB have XDR-TB. The proportion of XDR-TB among MDR-TB cases was highest in Belarus (29%), Georgia (15%), Latvia (19%) and Lithuania (25%) [15].

What is SLI in TB?

In 2006, we first described the worldwide emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, defined as MDR tuberculosis with additional resistance to a fluoroquinolone and a second-line injectable drug (SLI) [2–4].

What is the difference between XDR and MDR tuberculosis?

Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a strain of TB that cannot be treated with the two most powerful first-line treatment anti-TB drugs. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to several of the most effective anti-TB drugs.

Is XDR-TB treatable?

Can XDR TB be treated and cured? Yes, in some cases. Some TB control programs have shown that cure is possible for an estimated 30% to 50% of affected people.

What does XDR stand for?


Acronym Definition
XDR Extreme Drug Resistant
XDR Extended Data Representation
XDR XML Data Representation
XDR Extreme Data Rate

Is XDR TB treatable?

Is XDR TB contagious?

Even though XDR TB is highly concerning to health authorities, TB is not as contagious as some other airborne pathogens, things like measles or chickenpox. Still, it is a major global threat, and one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.

How does someone develop XDR TB?

Like other forms of TB, XDR-TB is spread through the air. When a person with infectious TB coughs, sneezes, talks or spits, they propel TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air. XDR-TB cannot be spread by kissing, sharing food or drinks and by shaking someone’s hand.

What are the 2 types of MDR TB?

There are two main types, MDR TB and XDR TB. MDR TB is the name given to TB when the bacteria that are causing it are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, two of the most effective TB drugs.

What is the treatment of XDR-TB?

Current treatment for XDR-TB requires the assembly of a regimen of six drugs, including a six-month phase of treatment that includes injectable drugs, and a further 12-18 months of treatment with five drugs.

Is XDR-TB contagious?

Which is the new definition of pre-XDR-TB?

“We urge national TB programmes to transition to these new definitions.” The new definition of pre-XDR-TB is: TB caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains that fulfil the definition of multidrug resistant and rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) and which are also resistant to any fluoroquinolone.

Are there any cases of XDR TB in the United States?

The risk of acquiring XDR TB in the United States appears to be low because XDR TB is uncommon in the U.S. However, TB can spread easily. As long as XDR TB exists, the risk to people in the United States is not zero, and the U.S. public health system must address the threat. How many cases of XDR TB have been reported in the United States?

How can health care providers help prevent MDR and XDR TB?

Health care providers can help prevent MDR and XDR TB by quickly diagnosing TB cases, following recommended treatment guidelines, monitoring patients’ response to treatment, and making sure therapy is completed.

What’s the difference between pre extensively and extensively drug resistant TB?

MDR-TB is defined as TB strains resistant to at least two first line drugs, rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Pre-extensively drug resistant TB (Pre-XDR TB) is defined as MDR-TB strain that is resistant to either fluoroquinolones (FQ) or second line injectable drug but not both.