Does caffeine induce or inhibit CYP1A2?
Caffeine is the active constituent in coffee. Continual consumption of caffeine can lead to an attenuated response also known as tolerance. Results from rat studies have shown that caffeine is an inducer of CYP1A2, the enzyme responsible for caffeine’s metabolism.
Does caffeine inhibit CYP1A2?
The results of this study revealed a pronounced effect of caffeine on the bioavailability of orally given melatonin, most probably due to inhibition of CYP1A2 activity.
How does CYP1A2 metabolize caffeine?
Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are “rapid” caffeine metabolizers, whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are “slow” caffeine metabolizers.
What does it mean to be a slow metabolizer of caffeine?
If you are a Slow Metabolizer then your genetic makeup indicates you process caffeine at a slower rate and, as a result, caffeine may have longer-lasting stimulant effects. Slow metabolizers may experience negative side effects of caffeine consumption to a higher degree such as insomnia, anxiety, and upset stomach.
What happens if CYP1A2 is inhibited?
Drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 will predictablyincrease the plasma concentrationsof the medications listed inTable 1, and in some cases adverseoutcomes will occur. Of particular noteis fluvoxamine, which is a potentCYP1A2 inhibitor and also inhibitsother CYP450 enzymes, such asCYP2C19, CYP3A4, and to some extentCYP2C9.
Is caffeine an enzyme inhibitor?
However, caffeine is a fairly weak inhibitor of phosphodiesterase enzymes, and the in vivo concentrations at which behavioral effects occur are probably too low to be associated with meaningful phosphodiesterase inhibition (Burg and Werner, 1975; Daly, 1993).
How is caffeine ingested?
When it is consumed in beverages (most commonly coffee, tea, or soft drinks) caffeine is absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout body water. More rapid absorption can be achieved by chewing caffeine-containing gum or other preparations that allow absorption through the oral mucosa.
How does caffeine affect CYP1A2?
The CYP1A2 rs762551 C allele is associated with lower CYP1A2 enzyme activity. CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and is induced by smoking. In non-smokers, the CYP1A2 variants were associated with higher reported caffeine intake, which in turn was associated with lower odds of hypertension and lower BP (P = 0.01).
Does cyp4a2 metabolize caffeine?
Caffeine is almost completely metabolized in the body by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). This enzyme accounts for the metabolism of caffeine to its principal metabolite, paraxanthine . In vivo, CYP1A2 activity exhibits a significant degree of inter-individual variation (see  for review).
How do you tell if you’re a fast or slow caffeine metabolizer?
Likely, your body is giving you signs that can clue you into where you fall on the great coffee divide. Slow metabolizers can get jittery and stay wired up to nine hours after drinking caffeine, according to Precision Nutrition. Meanwhile, fast metabolizers simply feel more energetic and alert for a couple hours.
How come caffeine doesn’t affect me?
If caffeine does not affect you it may be due to your genetics, lack of sleep, or increased tolerance. To boost your energy without caffeine, try exercising, going outside, or eating a healthy snack.
Is caffeine an inducer or inhibitor?
Coffee consumption is a known inducer of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme activity.
How does caffeine affect the CYP1A2 gene?
DNA was isolated from saliva and genotyped for the -163A > C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene (rs762551). Results: Overall, 4 mg·kg caffeine decreased cycling time by 3% (mean ± SEM) versus placebo (17.6 ± 0.1 vs 18.1 ± 0.1 min, P = 0.01). However, a significant (P <0.0001) caffeine-gene interaction was observed.
Is there a way to test for CYP1A2?
You can test for the caffeine gene through a simple saliva or blood test that analyzes your DNA. “I don’t typically test for CYP1A2 in isolation,” explained Dr. Lester.
When to use CYP1A2 for endurance performance?
CYP1A2 genotype should be considered when deciding whether an athlete should use caffeine for enhancing endurance performance. Caffeine / administration & dosage Caffeine / metabolism*
Which is the enzyme that breaks down caffeine?
The speed of this decline depends on your CYP1A2 gene, which controls an enzyme (also called CYP1A2) that is in charge of breaking down any caffeine that enters the body. You have two copies of the CYP1A2 gene—one inherited from each of your parents—and each can be either a “fast” or “slow” version of the gene.