How does atlanto occipital dislocation happen?
Atlanto-occipital dislocation involves complete disruption of all ligamentous relationships between the occiput and the atlas. Death usually occurs immediately from stretching of the brainstem, which causes respiratory arrest. Radiographically, disassociation between the base of the occiput and the arch of C1 is seen.
What are the classifications of atlanto occipital injuries?
The Traynelis classification[8,19] (Figure 2) divides AOD into 3 groups: (1) Type I is an anterior displacement of the occiput relative to the atlas; (2) Type II is a distraction of the occiput from the atlas; and (3) Type III is a posterior displacement of the occiput relative to the atlas.
What is AO dissociation?
Atlanto occipital dissociation are typically the result of motor vehicle accidents. They are potentially fatal (mortality rate 50-60%). Immediate diagnosis and treatment is crucial for a good outcome. Diagnosis is made using CT imaging, and if there is any doubt about the diagnosis, MRI.
Why is it called a hangman’s fracture?
The hangman’s fracture refers to a break in a bone known as C2, because it is the second bone down from the skull in your cervical (neck) vertebrae.
What does occipital dislocation mean?
Atlanto-occipital dislocation, orthopedic decapitation, or internal decapitation describes ligamentous separation of the spinal column from the skull base. It is possible for a human to survive such an injury; however, 70% of cases result in immediate death.
What movement does the atlanto-occipital joint allow?
The atlas and the occipital bone form the atlanto-occipital joint, which allows neck flexion. When you nod your head as if to say “yes,” that is neck flexion. The atlas and axis form the atlanto-axial joint, which allows head rotation.
Can you survive a dislocated neck?
It is possible for a human to survive such an injury; however, 70% of cases result in immediate death. It should not be confused with atlanto-axial dislocation, which describes ligamentous separation between the first and second cervical vertebra.
Can you survive a C2 fracture?
Injuries to the C1 and C2 vertebrae are rare, accounting for only 2% of spinal injuries each year. However, they are also considered to be the worst spinal cord injury that it is possible to sustain, and often fatal.
How bad is a C2 fracture?
Severe C2 fractures may require surgery and physical therapy. If a C2 fracture does not result in paralysis, the victim may experience pain or problems moving the head until the fracture completely heals. The prognosis for a C2 fracture is typically good if the fracture didn’t cause paralysis.
What happens at the atlanto-occipital joint?
Function. The movements permitted in this joint are: (a) flexion and extension around the mediolateral axis, which give rise to the ordinary forward and backward nodding of the head. (b) slight lateral motion, lateroflexion, to one or other side around the anteroposterior axis.
What does the occipital condyle do?
The occipital condyles are paired kidney-shaped structures that form the base of the occipital bone and are the structural bases for the articulation of the skull with the cervical spine.
How do you fix a dislocated neck?
Treatment Options Initial treatment of severe cervical fractures and dislocations may involve skeletal traction and closed reduction, with metal pins placed in the skull connected to a pulley, rope, and weights. Nonoperative treatments include brace (orthotic) treatment and medications.