How does arsenic treat APL?

How does arsenic treat APL?

How it works. Arsenic works by speeding up the death of leukaemic cells and encouraging normal blood cells to develop properly. It does this by working on particular proteins within the cell.

What is APL in hematology?

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an aggressive type of acute myeloid leukemia in which there are too many immature blood-forming cells (promyelocytes) in the blood and bone marrow. This build up of promyelocytes leads to a shortage of normal white and red blood cells and platelets in the body.

What is APL drug?

There are several types of anthracyclines; daunorubicin (Cerubidine®) and idarubicin (Idamycin®) are the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of APL, typically in combination with ATRA. The initial remission rate of APL patients treated with ATRA and an anthracycline, such as idarubicin, is about 90 percent.

Why does APL cause bleeding?

In APL and other types of leukemia, the bone marrow is filled by malignant cells and is unable to produce functional cells. A decreased number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) is one of the contributing factors to the bleeding often present in APL.

Can APL leukemia be cured?

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become a curable disease by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based induction therapy followed by two or three courses of consolidation chemotherapy. Currently around 90% of newly diagnosed patients with APL achieve complete remission (CR) and over 70% of patients are curable.

What are the side effects of arsenic?

Symptoms of arsenic poisoning

  • red or swollen skin.
  • skin changes, such as new warts or lesions.
  • abdominal pain.
  • nausea and vomiting.
  • diarrhea.
  • abnormal heart rhythm.
  • muscle cramps.
  • tingling of fingers and toes.

Can APL be cured?

What is the survival rate for APL?

APL is now considered a highly curable disease, with 2-year event-free survival rates of 75–84%. Early mortality is common in APL and is frequently related to hemorrhagic complications.

How long can you live with APL?

Currently large cohort of patients enjoys disease-free survival of 5 years or longer. However, a disease-free status is not synonymous with a life free of physical and psychological health related to the cancer and/or its treatment.

When to use Fludara injection for CLL patients?

Indications and Usage for Fludara. Fludara FOR INJECTION is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who have not responded to or whose disease has progressed during treatment with at least one standard alkylating-agent containing regimen.

What are the side effects of Fludara intravenously?

Patients should be closely observed for signs of neurologic effects. When used at high doses in dose-ranging studies in patients with acute leukaemia, intravenous Fludara was associated with severe neurological effects, including blindness, coma and death. Symptoms appeared from 21 to 60 days from last dose.

How much lactose is in a Fludara tablet?

Each Fludara 10 mg film-coated tablet contains 74.75 mg lactose monohydrate. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicine. Fludara 10 mg film-coated tablet contains sodium.

What kind of nucleotide is in Fludara for injection?

Fludara FOR INJECTION contains Fludarabine phosphate, a fluorinated nucleotide analog of the antiviral agent vidarabine, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) that is relatively resistant to deamination by adenosine deaminase.